What is Human Resource Management?
Human resource management is an organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organizational development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
Human resource management is a strategic and comprehensive approach that helps to manage people and the work culture and environment. Effective HRMS triggers employees to contribute more efficiently and hence increases productivity of the overall company, helping the team to accomplish the organization's short-term as well as long-term goals and objectives.
What are the 4 types of human resource management?
The four types of HRM models are: 1) The Fombrun, 2) The Harvard, 3) The Guest, and 4) The Warwick.
1. The Fombrun Model
This is the earliest model (from 1984), and it highlights only four functions and their interrelationships. Selection, appraisal, development, and incentives are the four functions. These four human resource management core components are expected to contribute to organisational effectiveness.
The Fombrun model is flawed because it concentrates just on four HRM functions while ignoring all environmental and situational factors that influence HR functions.
2. The Harvard Model
The Harvard model promises to be comprehensive since it strives to include six key aspects of HRM. Stakeholders, interests, situational circumstances, HRM policy choices, HR results, long-term implications, and a feedback loop are all covered in the model. The outputs are immediately available to the organisation and its stakeholders.
Read more about what is the Harvard Framework for HRM
3. The Guest Model
David Guest created yet another human resource management model in 1997, which he thinks is far superior than the others. According to this approach, the HR manager has certain plans to begin with, which need specific practises and, when followed, will produce results. Behavioral, performance-related, and financial rewards are among the outcomes. The HR strategy, HR practises, HR outcomes, behavioural outcomes, performance results, and financial ramifications are all highlighted in the model.
4. The Warwick Model
Two University of Warwick scholars, Hendry and Pettigrew, created this model (hence the name Warwick model). The Warwick proposal, like other human resource management approaches, is built around five components.
Outer context (macro-environmental forces)
Inner context (firm-specific or microenvironmental forces)
Content for business strategy
Context of Human Resources Management
The Warwick model considers business strategy and HR practises (as in the Guest model), the external and internal context in which these activities occur (unlike the Guest model), and the process by which these changes occur, including interactions between changes in both context and content (unlike the Guest model).
What are the 5 areas of Human Resource Management?
-HRM aims to motivate employees and maintain all the human resource activities within the organisation.
- HRM trains and develops the people in organization.
- HRM motivates people by giving them recognition and rewards.
- HRM also provides people with the best working conditions.
- HRM is more concerned with the 'people' of the organisation.
What are the 7 functions of Human Resource Management?
Human resource management is regarded as a sub-system of the organisation. Human resource also offers a distinct approach of managing human resources in today's diligent and fluctuating environment. It is an transpiring discipline, which possesses the following features:
1. It is a management of an individual entity
Human resource management is concerned with the people's dimension of management. Hence it addresses different people such as departmental heads, supervisors, worker/labor, managers and other related top managers too. Therefore, human resource management defines as in managing a human resource and their dedication towards work.
2. It is continuous process
Human resource management is not a short affair, rather it is an ongoing process of managing people and their competencies. It is continued till the disintegration of an organisation. All processes involved in Human Resources Management should run continuously.
3. It is a robust function
The principles and practices of Human Resources Management should not be rigorous. Rather they should be dynamic and robust. It means that Human Resource Management is Robust function whereby the procedures and practices that are influenced by the environmental factors. Employees should also able to gain an updated knowledge and ability to work in the constantly changing environment.
- Human resource managements
- Business Risk
- Customer service objectives
4. It is universal function
Human Resource Management is a universal function in the sense that it is applicable in all types of entities. The principles and practices are applied irrespective of scope, nature, size and purpose of the organization.
5. It is strategic approach
HRM is taken as a part of strategic approach for organizational overall development. It helps to marshal human resources in the organization in order to achieve the stated objectives and goals strategically. All the activities of management are arranged in such a way that they are interconnected with effective and efficient application of human resources according to change in organization's strategies.
6. Integration of goals
Usually there is a goal difference between organizational goals and individual goals. An employee wants to satisfy their individual goals first. But the problem is managers want to accomplish organizational goals before something else. Hence, HRM practices and principles help in integrating individual and organizational goals into a framework. As a result of which, employees are motivated towards higher level work performance for achievement of organizational goal.
7. Human Resource Management is future-oriented
HRM is future oriented behavior in the sense that it helps in assessing human resource requirements for the future. It helps in determining future goals and objectives of the organization and it employees the people to get the job done in future period of time.
What is the importance of HRM?
An organisation on their own cannot build a better team of professionals without having a good Human Resource Management. The key functions of the Human Resources Management (HRM) team includes recruitment of people, giving training to them, proper performance appraisals, motivating and inspiring employees as well as workplace engagement, also workplace safety, and much more. The beneficial effects of these functions are discussed as below:
1. Recruitment and Training
The one of the major responsibilities of a human resource team is Recruitment & Training. The HR managers has come up with proper plans and efficient strategies for recruitment of right kind of people. HR Recruiters design the criteria which is most eligible for that specific job description. Their other tasks also involves related to recruitment that includes formulating the responsibility of an employee and the scope of tasks assigned to them. Based on these two important factors, the contract of an employee with the organization is well prepared. When needed, they also provide training and onboarding to the employees according to the given requirements of the organisation. Thus, the employees get the opportunity to sharpen their existing skills or to develop specialised skills which in turn in future will help them to take up some new responsibility and roles.
2. Performance Appraisals
HRM also helps organizations to encourage the people working to perform according to their potential and gives them feedback that could help them to bring about improvement in it. The team communicates with their staff personally from time to time and provides all the necessary suggestions or feedback regarding their performances and also let them define their respective roles. This is beneficial as it gives opportunity to enable them to form an outline of their anticipated goals in much broader terms and thereby, will helps them to execute the goals with best possible and efficient efforts. Performance appraisals, when taken on a regular basis, will motivate and engage the employees.
3. Maintaining Work Atmosphere
This is very important aspect of HRM because the on that basis the performance of an individual in an organisation is largely driven by the work atmosphere or workplace culture that prevails at the company. A better working condition is one of the prime benefits that the employees can expect from an efficient human resource management team. A safe, clean and healthy environment of an organization can bring out the best in an employee. An employee-friendly atmosphere gives the staff members job satisfaction as well.
4. Managing Disputes
In an organisation, there are several problems on which disputes may arise between the employees and the recruiters. You can also say that conflicts are almost unavoidable. In such a case, it is necessary that human resource department which acts as a consultant and middleman to sort out those problems in an effective manner. They first hear the resentment of the employees. Then they come up with suitable solutions to resolve the HR challenges. In another words, they should take a timely action and prevent things from going out of hands.
5. Developing Public Relations
The reliability of establishing good public relations lies with the HRM at a great extent. They are responsible to organise business meetings, seminars and various official gatherings on behalf of the company in order to build up relationships with other business sectors as well. Sometimes, the HR department plays a vital role in preparing the business and marketing plans for the organisations too.
Any organisation, without a proper and effective setup for HRM is bound to suffer from important and serious problems while managing its regular activities. For this reason, today, organizations should put a lot of effort and energy into setting up a strong and effective HRM.